M.A. History 1st sem. Notes: History of Ecology and Environment

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History of Ecology and Environment

Table of contents

  • NATURE-HUMAN INTERFACE: Defining Nature, Locating Man, A Maker of Artefacts, Social Animal, Nature-Human Interface: Changing Concerns
  • INDIAN LANDSCAPE:  Physical Features, The Himalayas, The Plains of Northern India, The Indian Plateau, The Coastal Lowlands, Vegetation, Soils, Perceptions of Landscape
  • SOURCES OF STUDY: Survey of Literature, Methodologies, Colonial Period, Pre-Colonial Period
  • RESOURCE USE AND HUMAN SOCIETIES:  Nature of Resources & Social Use, Renewable Resources, Non-renewable Resources, Resource-Use Practices and Their Impact, Pre-agricultural, Agricultural, Iron Age
  • HUNTING-GATHERING:  Nature of Evidence, Geographical Spread, Characteristics, Regional Variations
  • NOMADIC PASTORALISM: Emergence of Pastoralism, Pastoralism and Nomadic Communities, Nomadic Pastoralism and Settled Communities
  • ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE: Neolithic Revolution, Early Agriculture and Environment, Early Agriculture: Regional Dispersal, Baluchistan, Indus System, Northern Valleys, East, Peninsular India
  • RIVER VALLEY CIVILISATION: The Antecedants, The Environmental Conditions, Indus Agriculture, Method & Tools, Crops
  • AGRICULTURAL DIFFUSION AND REGIONAL SPECIFICITIES-I: Geography and Subsistence Strategies, Vana/Aranya and Ksetra/Janapada Dichotomy : The Theoretical Divide, The Aftermath of Harappan Civilisation, Post-urban Harappan Situation, Agro-pastoralism in Chalcolithic Cultures, Subsistence In Transition: ‘Pastoralism to Agriculture’ in Vedic Corpus, Second Urbanisation and Complex State Societies , The Environmental Setting, Iron and Rice: The Causative Agents, Early India: Irrigation, Reclamation and Phased Formations, Irrigation Patterns in Early India: The Construct of Hydraulic Despotism, Proliferation of Agrarian Knowledge: Formation of Sub-Regions and Regions, Situation in Medieval Period, Crop-patterns: Continuity and Change, State Intervention and Regional Variations
  • AGRICULTURAL DIFFUSION AND REGIONAL SPECIFICITIES-II:  Pre-Iron Age Situation, Three-fold Classification, Agro-pastoral Economy, Chalcolithic Cultures of Deccan, Environmental Variations and Agrarian Specificities, Subsistence Pattern, Archaeology and literature: Iron/Megalithic Age and Tamil Anthologies, Megalithic Distribution and Typology, Agro-pastoral Economy, Tamilakkam, Sangam Literature and the Ecological Concept of Tinai, Plunder and Agriculture, Early State Formations and Agriculture, Early Medieval Agrarian Developments, Nadu and the Newer Instruments of Agrarian Integration, Reclamation, Irrigation and Crop-production, Geo-polity and Agrarian Expansion, Eco-zones: Phased Opening of Agrarian Frontiers
  • CHANGES IN THE LATER VEDIC PHASE: Sources, Literary Sources, Archaeological Sources Iron Technology and its Impact The Nature of the Economy, Importance of Pastoralism Declines, Changes in the Functions of the Rituals, Emerging Importance of Land Polity and Society, Polity, Society Religion, Priestcraft, The Changing Gods, Folk Tradition
  • THE EARLY VEDIC SOCIETY:  Sources, Literary Sources, Archaeological Sources, The Aryan Invasion-A Myth or A Reality?, Economy, Society, Polity, Religion
  • CHALCOLITHIC AND EARLY IRON AGE-1: Ochre Coloured Pottery Culture, The Problems of Copper Hoards , Black and Red Ware Culture, Painted Grey Ware Culture, Northern Black Polished Ware Culture, Structures, Pottery, Other Objects, Ornaments, Terracotta Figurines, Subsistence Economy and Trade, Chalcolithic Cultures of Western, Central and Eastern India, Pottery: Diagnostic Features, Economy, Houses and Habitations, Other ‘characteristics, Religion/Belief Systems, Social Organization
  • CHALCOLITHIC AND EARLY IRON AGE -2: Early Farming Settlements, Cultural Phases, Subsistence Economy, Material Culture, Burial Practices, Neolithic Surface Finds, Iron Age in South India, Megalithic Cultures, Origins of the Megalithic Cultures, Material Culture, Subsistence Economy
  • ENERGY RESOURCES:  Forms of Energy, Energy Consumption: Historical Patterns, Conservation
  • WATER RESOURCES: Water As a Resource, Properties and Distribution, Resource Use, Water Conservation, Water Rights
  • FOREST RESOURCES: Understanding the Forest, Forest Coverage, Forest in History, Levels of Interaction, Sole Provider, Ancillary Product, Conservation Practices
  • METAL & MINERAL RESOURCES: Metal Resources, Historical Evolution of Metals, In World, In India, Mineral Resources
  • MAN-NATURE RELATIONSHIP: Man’s Place in Nature, Srsti/Universe and Its Attributes, Components of Environment, Vegetation and the Animal World, Popular and Classical Traditions: Representations of Environment, Pollution (Pradushana):Traditional Concerns
  • CONSERVATION THROUGH AGES:  Understanding Conservation, Indian View of Conservation, Conservation Practices in History
  • UNDERSTANDING OF ENVIRONMENT:  Industrialism: Environmental Discourse, Colonialism: Environmental Discourse, Conservation
  • ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA:  Colonial Environmental Agenda, Post-colonial Situation
  • RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: FORESTS:  The Pre-Colonial Background, The Colonial Period, Post-Independence Period,Recent Debates, Forest Policies: A Politico-Legal Analysis, The Colonial Background, Independent India
  • RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: WATER:  Situating Water Resources: Colonial Period, The Contested Domain: State, Environment and Water Resources,Surface Water and Ground Water, Water Resources: Spatial and Temporal Variations, Current Issues, Inter-State Water Disputes, Inter-Linking Rivers: The National Water Grid, Big Dams versus Small Dams,Flood Control versus Flood Management, Water Pollution
  • DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS:  Understanding Development and Environmental Concerns, Mainstream View, Reformist View, Further Views, Critical Discourse, Deep Ecology, Social Ecology, Eco-Socialism and Eco-Feminism
  • BIODIVERSITY:  Biodiversity: Meaning & Importance, India’s Biodiversity , Biodiversity Depletion & Conservation, People’s Initiatives
  • ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND PATENTS: Convention of Biodiversity, Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), Contradictions And Conflicts, Developments in India, Case Studies
  • ALTERNATIVES:  Development – Gandhian Alternatives, Environmental Conservation – Chipko Movement

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